APA ITU PRAMUWISATA

Pengertian Pramuwisata
Pada umumnya, pramuwisata atau tour guide diartikan sebagai setiap orang yang memimpin kelompok yang terorganisir untuk jangka waktu singkat maupun jangka waktu yang panjang. Tugas tour guide memiliki beberapa spesifikasi tergantung dari tugas apa yang sedang dia lakukan (sesuai dengan kemampuannya). Seorang guide khusus di lokasi yang khusus/tertentu disebut local guide yang biasanya menjadi petugas tetap di lokasi tersebut (contoh: Museum, botanical garden, zoo dan lain-lain). 

Tata Nuriata (1995:1) pramuwisata berasal dari bahasa Sansekerta yaitu pramu, wis, dan ata. Pramu berarti pelayan atau orang yang melayani, wis berarti tempat dan ata berarti banyak. Pendapat umum mengartikan wisata sebagai keliling atau perjalanan sehingga dalam hal ini pramuwisata dapat dikatakan sebagai petugas yang melayani orang yang sedang melakukan perjalanan wisata.

Oka A. Yoeti (…:….) pramuwisata adalah seorang yang memberi penerangan, penjelasan serta petunjuk kepada wisatawan dan traveler lainnya, tentang segala sesuatu yang hendak dilihat dan disaksikan bilamana mereka berkunjung pada suatu objek, tempat atau daerah tertentu.

Prof. E. Amato dari ILO, Guiding Technique menyatakan: ”tour guide is a person employed either by the travelers, a travel agency or any others tourist organization, to inform, direct and advice the tourist organization, to inform, direct and advice the tourists before and during their short visits”. Pramuwisata adalah seorang yang bekerja untuk wisatawan, biro perjalanan, ataupun lembaga kepariwisataan lain untuk memberikan informasi, memimpin perjalanan atau memberi saran-saran kepada wisatawan sebelum atau selama kunjungan-kunjungan singkatnya.

Dari beberapa pengertian tentang pramuwisata tersebut dapat diberikan batasan bahwa pramuwisata adalah orang yang bertugas memberikan bimbingan,  informasi, dan petunjuk tentang atraksi atau destinasi. Pekerjaan memandu wisatawan mengundang kesan sebuah pekerjaan yang bersifat mewah dan menyenangkan dengan imbalan yang besar, padahal pramuwisata merupakan salah satu profesi (mendapatkan bayaran yang layak atas kemampuannya) yang unik, karena profesi ini membutuhkan kemampuan berbahasa (sesuai yang dibutuhkan), dapat berinteraksi dengan wisatawan, memiliki pengetahuan luas, fleksibel, penuh pengertian dan kedewasaan berpikir serta kesehatan yang prima/kekuatan fisik/jasmani.

Kemampuan memandu tidak hanya didapat dari sekolah/kuliah maupun kursus, tetapi didapat dari pengalaman yang dikumpulkan sedikit demi sedikit dari mengenal objek wisata dan melakukan pemanduan tidak resmi, sampai akhirnya setelah ”jam terbang” nya mencukupi dan dikenal oleh pengguna jasa (biro perjalanan) barulah secara resmi di uji oleh lembaga terkait untuk mendapatkan pengesahan sebagai tour guide yang legal dan bertanggung jawab. Hanya sedikit orang yang memahami bahwa pekerjaan ini juga memiliki bermacam-macam halangan/kesulitan yang mungkin terjadi dalam pelaksanaan operasionalnya. Kesulitan yang mungkin terjadi dalam kegiatan sebagai tour guide di antaranya adalah: kehilangan bagasi, pesawat yang overbook, penumpang yang mengeluh, marah, keberangkatan yang tertunda, dan sebagainya.

Karier pramuwisata dapat ditingkatkan menjadi seorang tour planner, bila dan dapat membuka usaha layanan jasa wisata, mulai dari membuat paket tour, memasarkan dan melaksanakan operasional wisata. Pramuwisata merupakan duta bagi perusahaan dan bangsa serta mengemban citra budaya bangsa, karena mereka adalah ujung tombak dari keberhasilan promosi pariwisata. Tugas seorang pramuwisata adalah memimpin pelaksanaan suatu kegiatan kunjungan / wisata mulai dari persiapan sampai pada akhir kegiatan sesuai dengan ketentuan dalam fasilitas paket tour atau peraturan/ ketentuan yang telah disepakati antara perusahaan perjalanan wisata dengan wisatawan.

A tour guide (or tourist guide) provides assistance, information and cultural, historical and contemporary heritage interpretation to people on organized tours, individual clients, educational establishments, at religious and historical sites, museums, and at venues of other significant interest.[1] They (normally) have a recognized national or regional tourist guide qualification.

The CEN (European Committee for Standardization) definition for “tourist guide” (part of the work by CEN on definitions for terminology within the tourism industry) is:

Tourist guide = person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural heritage of an area, which person normally possesses an area-specific qualification usually issued and/or recognized by the appropriate authority, March 2010

CEN also produced a definition for “tour manager”:

our manager = person who manages and supervises the itinerary on behalf of the tour operator, ensuring the programme is carried out as described in the tour operator’s literature and sold to the traveller/consumer and who gives local practical information[citation needed]In Europe, tourist guides (tour guide being initially a term primarily used in the US market) are represented by FEG, the European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations and outside Europe by WFTGA.

The tourist guiding qualification is specific to each and every country; in some cases the qualification is national, in some cases it is broken up into regions. In all cases it is embedded in the educational and training ethic of that country. The Art of Guiding is a skill; it is the skill of selecting information and varying it for different audiences; it is the skill of presenting it in a simple and precise way; it is the skill of allowing the visitor to see and to understand; it is a skill which, if well performed, is invisible.

What is a Tourist Guide?
EN 13809 OF THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDISATION (CEN)

Tourist Guide

This job belongs to job family > Leisure, Sport and Tourism

Tourist guides accompany visitors to sites or areas of interest. They use their knowledge and expertise to make sure that visitors get the most from their visit. Guides usually look after groups ranging from just a few people up to around fifty.

The work of a tourist guide may involve:

  • taking visitors around cities, religious sites, historic buildings, industrial heritage sites, gardens, museums and other places of interest
  • providing detailed information about a site’s history, purpose, inhabitants, architecture, furniture, paintings, ornaments, flora and animal life
  • answering questions and directing visitors to other places of interest and related sites.

They may work with overseas tourists. Some conduct tours in one or more foreign languages. Guides may be based in one place, such as on an island,  cathedral, castle or historic house. Others accompany individuals or groups on day tours.

Most tourist guides, however, are self-employed and their earnings vary considerably. Many work part time.

It is common for guides to only work during the summer. Hours may be long during this traditional tourist season. They work indoors and outdoors and can be on their feet for long periods of time. Some may spend time away from home.

A tourist guide should:

  • have a clear voice
  • be patient and have confidence when speaking to groups of people
  • be enthusiastic and knowledgeable about their subject
  • be able to absorb and remember large amounts of information
  • be aware and able to keep track of people in a group
  • be flexible and able to cope with emergencies or unexpected incidents
  • have an interest in a wide range of subjects including history and current events.

The number of tourist guides has remained stable in the past few years, although opportunities for new positions are limited.

There are no set entry requirements. GCSEs (A*-C) and A levels are useful, and some guides have a degree.

Fluency in at least one foreign language can be a great advantage and a tourism-related qualification can be useful. It can also be helpful to train for an Institute of Tourist Guiding qualification before working as a guide.

Owners of sites and visitor attractions may provide their own training.

Some experienced guides work as guide trainers. It may be possible to work for a tour operator as a tour manager. Guides may also enter other areas of travel and tourism.
Adopted by WFTGA at its Dunblane, Scotland Convention 2003:

Tourist Guide:
A person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural heritage of an area which person normally possesses an area-specific qualification usually issued and/or recognised by the appropriate authority.

This is distinct from a tour manager defined by CEN as follows:

Tour Manager/Tour Director or Escort:
A Person who manages an itinerary on behalf of the tour operator ensuring the programme is carried out as described in the tour operator’s literature and sold to the traveller/consumer and who gives local practical information.Note: Tour managers may or may not be tourist guides as well. They are not trained or licensed to work in specific areas unless they have the proper requirements or legal right, depending on the region.

 

One Response to APA ITU PRAMUWISATA

  1. Edmar says:

    makasih informasinya😀

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